Much of the history of pre-modern European society was shaped by the migration of various groups of peoples into and across the European landscape. Some of these groups migrated in search of new lands to settle on and farm; others migrated as part of an effort to conquer new lands and foreign peoples. Regardless of the impetus behind the migration, the migrants themselves frequently had a significant impact on the lands and peoples they encountered, spreading languages, religious practices, and even legal customs to these new areas and peoples. One of the first groups to migrate through Western Europe was the Celts, who ended up settling throughout much of Western Europe, bringing their language and culture with them. The Romans were yet another migrant group, and they were undoubtedly one of the most culturally impactful groups of migrants because the Romans enforced their political, legal, and religious customs in the territories in which they settled. Similarly, the Germanic-speaking tribes who moved into Roman territory as the Roman Empire fell had a marked effect on the language and culture of the peoples they settled among. Later groups of migrants who changed the course of European history included Muslim peoples, who emerged from the Arabian Peninsula in the mid-7th century CE and settled in Spain and Sicily, and the Vikings, who emerged from Scandinavia in the late 8th century CE and settled throughout much of Western Europe. In this class, we’ll examine all of these groups and their impact on the history and culture of Western Europe in the pre-modern period.